0000's The 1st Century BCE 000s BC

90s -
91-89: War of the Allies
91: Tribune Drusus proposes renewal of Gracchian agrarian laws and citizenship for Itallic allies.  Drusus murdered

90: Civil War in Rome. Marius driven out by Sulla
Polymath and Stoic philosopher Posidonius 135-51 begins his scientific voyages around the Mediterranean Sea.

80s -
89: Roman army, led by Sulla, regains control of Italy. Italic allies granted citizenship
88: Sulla conquers plebian Rome, re-establishes rule of the Senate (plebiscites valid only with approval of Senate)
88-84: 1st Mithridatic War, Mithridates VI of Pontus attacks Roman territory in the East
87: Reign of terror over the optimates by Cinna and Marius
86: Marius dies during his 7th consulship.
82: Sulla made dictator for life, restoration of senatorial rule, equestrians lose judgeships, office of Tribune and Plebian Assembly weakened

70s -
79: Sulla resigns dictatorship
77-71: Pompey eliminates remaining Marians in Spain, after soldiers betray their commander Sertorius.
74-64: 3rd Mithradatic War, mutiny of Roman army under Lucullus 68

73-71 Spartacus leads slave revolt, which was crushed by Pompey.
72: The Suevi invade Gaul

Lucretius 99 - 55 an Epicurean philosopher and poet

60s -
69: Hyrcannus II deposed in Palestine; rise of the house of Antipater
68: Romans capture Crete
67: Pompey rids the Mediterranean of Pirates
66: Pompey defeats Mithradates at the Euphrates
63: Romans under Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) capture Jerusalem
63-62: The Conspiracy of Catiline to overthrow the Roman Republic discovered and suppressed by Cicero.
62: Catiline and 3,000 supporters d. at Pistoria
60: 1st Triumvirate of Crassus, Pompey and Caesar

50s -

Crassus, Pompey and Caesar
Lucretius writes De Rerum Natura On The Nature of Things, in which he poetically professes the philosophy of Epicurus and the mortal soul.
55: Gaius Julius Caesar invades Britain with eighty transports and two legions, landing at Albion, between Deal and Walmer.
54: Caesar again invades Britain, with five legions and some cavalry, in 500 ships. A storm destroys many ships, but Caesar invades inland, is opposed by Britons under Cassivellaunus, who avoids pitched battle but continually harasses the Romans. Eventually local tribes make peace with Caesar, surrender hostages, and promise tribute. Caesar declares a victory, leaves Britain, and takes his hostages back to Rome. Britain remains free from another invasion for almost 100 years.
53: Parthians defeat Romans at Carrhae (Harran), northern Syria.
52: Romans under Julius Caesar defeat Gauls under Vercengetorix, at Alesia, France.

01 19 49: Caesar and his army cross the Rubicon River and march on Rome. The Senate flees.
49-46: Roman Civil War (Caesar vs. Pompey}
48: Pompey attacks Caesar's smaller army at Pharsalus, Greece. Pompey is defeated, and flees to Egypt where he is killed.
48: Alexandrian War, Caesar encircled, burns library, aided by Antipater, victorious at Nile, Cleopatra made Queen.
Plutarch's Antony
47: Caesar takes his army to Syria and Pontus, where he defeats Pharnaces II, saying "Veni, vidi, vici."
46: Caesar;s vict at Thapsus over Pompey's supporters (Cato's suicide at Utica)
45: Caesar's vict at Munda in Spain over the sons of Pompey. Caesar made dictator for life.
03 15 44: Julius Caesar assasinated. Marck Antony provokes Roman crowd to turn on Caesar's assassins, who flee from Rome.
42: Army of Roman Emperor Octavian defeats army of Brutus and Cassius (two of Julius Caesar's assassins).
Plutarch's Antony
40: Antonius and Octavius sign the Treaty of Brundisium, dividing up the Roman Empire. Herod, whose father Antipater had rescued Caesar at Alexandria, is appointed "client" king of Judea--rules for 36 years.

37: Antonius settles in Alexandria with Cleopatra, and neglects his governmental responsibilities.
32: Roman Senate strips Antonius of his powers, leading to civil war.
31: Antonius' fleet vanquished at Actium, by Roman fleet under Marus Vipsanius Agrippa. When Octavian (Julius Caesar's adopted son, later Caesar Augustus) arrives at Alexandria, Antonius commits suicide, and Cleopatra joins him shortly thereafter.


Livy's The History of Rome



1st Millennium BC 000s BC

Plutarch's Caius Marius
Plutarch's Sertorius
Plutarch's Sylla
Josephus' The Jewish War
Plutarch's Pompey
Plutarch's Caesar
Plutarch's Cato the Younger
Plutarch's Cicero
Plutarch's Crassus
Plutarch's Lucullus
Plutarch's Marcus Brutus

Josephus' Wars of the Jews