0000's The 5th Century BCE 400s BC
490s -

494 - Retreat of the Plebeians to the sacred Mt. Aventine, who refuse military service until the office of the Tribunes (2) was granted, with power to veto the Assembly & Senate
490 - 10,000 Athenians under Miltiades defeat Darius' Persian forces at Marathon, Greece. The Greek front being wider than the Persian phalanx results in the ends of the Greek lines enveloping the sides of the Persian phalanx. Disagreement exists as to whether the envelopment was an intentional tactic, a happenstance of the Greek center giving way when the forces collided, or perhaps even the semi-circular shape of the hills from which the Greeks descended as they joined the battle.

480s -
486 - Battle of Lake Regillus establishes Rome's dominance within the Latin League.
486- Darius I dies, and is succeeded by his son, Xerxes I.
480 Leonidas I and Spartan army defeated by Xerxes I and Persian army at Thermopylae.
484 Greek tragedian Aeschylus (c.524c.455) wins his first victory at the Dionysia.
480 - Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse, defeats Carthaginian general Hamilcar, at Himera.
480: Athens under Themistocles destroys Persian navy at Salamis.
470s -
479: Athens, Corinth and Sparta defeat General Mardonius at Plataea. Persian army leaves Greece.
47? King Ahasuerus of Persia (Xerxes I ?) marries Esther, who convinces him to prevent the planned killing of all Persian Jews. This is the basis of the Jewish festival of Purim.
472 The Persians, Aeschylus oldest surviving play, won first prize at the Dionysia. Only 7 of his 70 to 90 plays have survived , and he is said to have been more proud of having fought in the Battles of Marathon, Salamis and Platea than any of them.
471: After political reversals, Themistocles is banished from Athens and goes to live with King Admetus and later with Persian King Artaxerxes I.
471:  Publian Law creates the Comitia Tributa, a Plebeian Council which held plebiscites to recommend laws to the Senate and Assembly (Centuriates)
470s Greek poet Simonides c.556468 is credited by Cicero with the invention of the method of loci (image mnemonics). However, this memory device was used earlier in other cultures.
460s -
468 The Greek playwright Sophocles (c.496-405) defeats Aeschylus for the Dionysia Athenian Prize. He wrote around 120 plays, but only 7 have survived.
466 Delian League defeats Persia at the Battle of Eurymedon.
465: Persian ruler Xerxes I murdered by Artabanus. He is succeeded by .
464 An earthquake in ancient Sparta, Greece leads to a Helot uprising and strained relations with Athens, one of the factors that lead to the Peloponnesian War.
464 Regent King Artabanus of Persia is killed by his charge Artaxerxes I 465424.
464 BC: Third Messenian war.
450s -
458 Patrician dictator Cincinnatus defeated an invasion of the Aequi and then allegedly relinquished his office to return to his farm, embodying the ideal of Roman civic virtue.
Legendary Coriolanus vanquishes Corioli
c.457 Ezra c.480440 led a group of Hebrew exiles from Babylon to Jersalem to teach the laws of God to the remnant living in Judea. His Book tells the story of the first return of exiles in 538 and the completion of the new Temple in Jerusalem in 515, as well as Ezra's struggle to deal with Jews marrying non-Jews.


440s
449 - The Laws of the Twelve Tables codifies customary laws in Rome, including civil law, criminal law, and trial procedure, public law and relig. law.  (strong infl. of Gk law; Solon's Code)
445 - Plebians allowed to intermarry with patricians.
c. 444 Nehemiah asks permission and support from Artaxerxes I to return to Jerusalem and rebuild its walls. His Book also describes his efforts to cancel debts and enforce the divorce of Jewish men from their non-Jewish wives.
441 Euripides (c.480c.406) won first prize in the Dionysia. Athenian prisoners of war in Syracuse c.412 were said to have been released if they could recite passages from Euripides. 18 of his 92 plays have survived.
430s

438 The Parthenon, built on the Athenian Acropolis in thanksgiving for the Hellenic victory over Persian invaders, is completed. Its decorative sculptures in 432.
431-405 The Peloponnesian War is fought between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies for the hegemony of the Greek world.
c. 430 Herodotus publishes The History (Histories) establishing the genre in Western Civilization.
420s

429 Athenian General, Archon and benefactor Pericles dies.
428 Athenian general Cleon rises in prominence due to his anti-aristocratic populism, but is denounced as a warmongering demagogue by Thucydides and Aristophanes.
427 Sicilian sophist Gorgias (483375) was sent to Athens by his fellow-citizens as the head of an embassy to ask for Athenian protection against the aggression of the Syracusans.
Malachi meaning "My Messenger" is possibly a pseudonym for Ezra because the Book of Malachi c.420 admonishes Israel and its priests for accepting substandard offerings for sacrifice to God.
410s
415-13 The Sicilian Expedition results in Athenians losing 200 ships and thousands of soldiers.
Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War was written from 431 to 411.
411 The democratic government of Athens is overthrown in a coup and replaced by an oligarchy. Alcibiades, who had defected to Sparta after Athenians convicted him of sacrilege, encouraged the coup as well as another among the Athenian fleet in Samos which failed.
410: In the Battle of Cyzicus, an Athenian fleet destroyed a Spartan fleet, allowing Athens to recover its democracy and control over a number of cities in the Hellespont.

400s
405 Greek comic playwright Aristophanes (c.446c.386) refers to Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides in his play The Frogs. He cruelly caricatured his friend Socrates in The Clouds and denounced Cleon in The Babylonians. 11 of his 40 plays have survived.
404 Spartan alliance defeats Athens at the Battle of Aegospotami, ending the Peloponnesian War.
401 Persian King Artaxerxes II defeats and kills his brother Cyrus at Cunaxa, near the Median wall northwest of Babylon. 10,000 Greek mercenaries in the employ of Cyrus head home, under the direction of Xenophon, who was also a historian and student of Socrates.

1st Millennium BC 400s BC

Plutarch's legendary Coriolanus
Plutarch's Themistocles
Plutarch's Aristides
Plutarch's Cimon
Plutarch's Pericles
Plutarch's Nicias
Plutarch's Agesilaus
Plutarch's Alcibiades
Plutarch's Lysander
Plutarch's Artaxerxes