0000's The 6th Century BCE 500s BC
  590s -
598: Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II capture Jerusalem, throw King Jehoiakim's body "before the walls, without any burial" as prophesized by Jeremiah, imprison his son King Jehoiachin, and appoint Zedekiah as Jerusalem's ruler.

594: Solon becomes sole Archon of Athens; brings about 1.Emancipation of the peasantry (debts eliminated and personal bondage abolished) 2. Curtailment of aristocratic power 3. Currency reform 4. Judicial reform. Solon introduces new, milder laws to replace those of Draco, creates court of citizens and reforms election of magistrates. - Plutarch's Solon
580s -
587 Nebuchadnezzar II beseiges Jerusalem for 18 months, takes the city, and relocates Jews to Babylon.
586: Nebuchadnezzar II begins a 13 year siege of Tyre.
585: Peace established between Media and Lydia (in Greece), with the Halys (Kizil) River as the boundary between the two kingdoms. This establishes a balance of power between the Medes, Lydians and Babylonians, with the Egyptians farther to the south.
c.580 Cambyses I succeeds Cyrus I as King of Anshan and head of the Achaemenid dynasty.
570s -
Aesop writes his Fables This collection of stories grew after his death c.564.
c.579 Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as King of Rome.
560s -
562 Amel-Marduk succeeds Nebuchadnezzar as King of Babylon.
c. 560 Pisistratus rules Athens as a tyrant, promotes public works and general welfare till 527.

c.585-550 King Astyages was the last ruler of Media.

550s -

c.550s Carthage conquers the islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica.
559 Cyrus II the Great suceeds his father King Cambyses I of Anshan
556 Pisistratus is exiled from Athens to Euboea.
550 Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II) defeats his Median overlords, and begins expansion through Middle East, establishing the Persian Empire.

540s
549: Cyrus II defeats Astyages, the last king of the Medes.
549: Cyrus II, turning against the Lydians, captures Cilicia, cutting off supply routes to the Lydians in Greece, under Croesus.
547 Croesus attacks Cyrus II, at the Halys River, but the battle is inconclusive.
546 Cyrus II beseiges Croesus at his capitol Sardis, and captures him. One-by-one the Greek city-states along the coast of Asia Minor succumb to Persian armies. Lydia becomes province of Persia.
540: Cyrus II attacks Babylonian empire.

530s

539 Cyrus the Great captures Babylon "without a battle" from Nabonidus.
537 Cyrus II permits the Jews to return to Jerusalem.
(Isaiah 45:1 The Lord's Annointed)
Rome's last king Tarquinius Superbus 534509

520s
529: Cyrus II dies fighting near the Oxus and Jaxartes rivers.
527 Hippias and Hipparchus (sons of Peisistratus) rule Athens as tyrants till 514
525 Cambyses II, son of Cyrus, conquers Egypt.

522: Cambyses II is killed, and his spearbearer Darius becomes Persian ruler.

510s

518 Darius I founds the city of Persepolis.
514: Tyrant of Athens Hipparchus murdered
510 Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, overthrown by rebellion.
510 Cleisthenes overthrows Athenian tyranny with the help of the Spartan army.
500s
509 Roman Republic begins with expulsion of Etruscan monarchy by Valerius Poplicola and 3 other patricians.  Annual election of Consuls (2) starts. Valerian Law permits plebians to appeal (peace time) death sentences by Consul to the Comitia Centuriate (Popular Assembly)
508: Cleisthenes reforms the constitution of Athens, and introduces democratic government.
Plutarch's Poplicola

1st Millennium BC 500s BC