0000's The 7th Century BCE 600s BC
690s -

696 The Cimmerians migrated south from the Caspian steppe into Anatolia and conquered Phrygia.
691 King Sennacherib of Assyria defeats king Humban-nimena of Elam in the Battle of Halule.

689: Assyrians under Sennacherib sack Babylon.
683: Athenian monarchy replaced by the archonship (1 yr. term)
681 Esarhaddon succeeds Sennacherib as king of Assyria and announces his plan to restore Babylon the following year.
674 Esarhaddon puts down a revolt in Philistine Ascalon supported by King Taharqa of Egypt. The Assyrians then invade Egypt, but Taharqa is able to hold them off.

671 Esarhaddon again invades Egypt and captures Memphis, as well as the son and wife of Taharqa. Necho I, a delta city king 672664 BCE, is appointed the new pharoh, starting the 26th Dynasty.
c. 672640 Legendary 3rd King Tullus Hostilius of Rome defeated Alba Longa, head city of the Latin League.
660s -
669 Ashurbanipal succeeds his father Esarhaddon as king of Assyria.
665 Taharqa appointed his nephew Tantamani as his successor of Upper Egypt. The new Kushite king invaded Lower Egypt and killed Necho I

664: Assyrians under Ashurbanipal conquered Egypt, sacking Memphis and Thebes. Necho I's son Psamtik I is appointed as pharoh of the vassal state. This is the largest expansion of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
656 Psammetik I expels the Assyrian army and extends his control over all of Egypt, ending the Twenty-fifth (Nubian) Dynasty.
652 Ashurbanipal's older brother Shamash-shum-ukin leads Babylonia in revolt against the Assyrians.
652 (alternatively dated at 600) The Achaemenid (Persian) dynasty begins with Cyrus I ruling the city of Anshan in Elam.
649 Shamash-shum-ukin's Babylonian revolt is crushed by Assyrians under Ashurbanipal.
647: Assyrians under Ashurbanipal defeat Elamites at Battle of Susa
640 Assurbanipal captures the last Elamite king, Khumma-Khaldash III and annexes Elam
c.640s Ashurbanipal founds his Royal Library, which included our earliest complete copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
c. 640616 Legendary 4th King of Rome Ancus Marcius's religious piety emboldened the Latins to encroach upon Roman territory, prompting Ancus to militarily expand it.

631 Founding of Cyrene, a Greek colony in Libya (North Africa)

624: Draco addresses financial crisis of peasants in Athens with his Draconian Laws (very severe)
c. 616578 The legendary 5th King of Rome Tarquinius Priscus was an Etruscan who expanded Roman power through military conquest and grand architectural constructions. His wife was the prophetess Tanaquil.
615 Medes, under Cyaxares capture the Assyrian border city of Arrapha.
614: Cyaxares besieges Nineveh, but fails to capture it. The Medes capture the Assyrian city of Assur.
612 After Medes and Babylonians enter alliance through marriage of Cyaxares' granddaughter to Nebuchadnezzar II, son of Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar, Ninevah falls to Medes and Babylonians. Some segments of the Assyrian army move capital to Harran.
610 Harran falls to the Babylonians. Assyrians set up headquarters at Carchemish.

605 Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II defeat the Assyrians and their leader Ashur-uballit II, at Carchemish. Necho II of Egypt arrives too late to help, having been delayed by Jewish forces under King Josiah who was slain at Megiddo and being further delayed at Riblah. Upon arrival at Carchemish, Necho's army is defeated, chased to Hamath, and the Egyptian soldiers killed.
605 Nebuchadnezzar II becomes King of Babylon and builds his hanging gardens in 600
604: Jehoiakim gives royal hostages and pays tribute to Babylonians to end seige of Jerusalem.

1st Millineum BC 600s BC